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Brian Greene Explains That Whole General Relativity Thing


>>Stephen: WELCOME BACK,
EVERYBODY. MY NEXT GUEST IS A PROFESSOR OF
PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY AND
COFOUNDER OF THE WORLD SCIENCE FESTIVAL. PLEASE WELCOME PROFESSOR BRIAN
GREENE. ♪ ♪ ♪
>>THANK YOU, MAN. GOOD DRIVING.>>Stephen: THANK YOU FOR
BEING HERE, THANK YOU.( CHEERS )
HOW DO YOU– HOW DO YOU LIKE THE
SCIENCE MOBILE?>>OH, MAN, WAS THAT THE THE
INAUGURAL RUN OF IT.>>Stephen: THAT WAS THE FIRST
TIME WE USED THE SCIENCE MOBILE. YOU CAN RENT THAT FOR
CONVENTIONS. TELL YOUR SCIENCE FRIENDS.>>I WILL LET THEM ALL KNOW.>>Stephen: IT’S AVAILABLE. YOU ARE HERE NOT ONLY BECAUSE
YOU’RE A FASCINATING GUY TO TALK TO– THANK YOU FOR BEING AT MY
LAST SHOW AT THE OLD GIG.>>I LOVED IT. THANK YOU.>>Stephen: BUT, ALSO, THIS IS
THE 100th ANNIVERSARY, THIS MONTH, OF EINSTEIN PRESENTING
HIS GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY. ALL RIGHT. I KNOW IT’S FAMOUS. OKAY? ( LAUGHTER )
WHY IS IT EPOCH MAKING? WHY DID IT CHANGE EVERYTHING?>>SO WE DID NOT UNDERSTAND HOW
THE FORCE OF GRAVITY WORKED BEFORE EINSTEIN GAVE US THE
GENERAL THEORY.>>Stephen: DID NEWTON TEACH
US THAT GRAVITY COMES FROM APPLES?>>THAT’S WHAT YOU WOULD THINK. ( LAUGHTER )
THAT’S WHAT YOU WOULD THINK. BUT ACTUALLY, WHAT NEWTON GAVE
US IS A FORMULA THAT TELLS US THE STRENGTH OF GRAVITY, BUT HE
NEVER TOLD US HOW GRAVITY ACTUALLY EXERTS ITS PULL.>>Stephen: DID HE NOT CARE?>>HE CARED. IN FACT IN HIS OWN WRITING HE
SAID THAT IT WAS A CRITICAL QUESTION THAT NEEDED TO BE
ADDRESSED BUT HE SAID, “I WILL LEAVE IT TO THE CONSIDERATION OF
THE READER.” HE COULDN’T FIGURE IT OUT.>>Stephen: SO THEN EINSTEIN
READ THAT AND SAID, “I GOT THIS ONE. I GOT THIS ONE.”>>THAT’S RIGHT, THAT’S EXACTLY
RIGHT.>>Stephen: STAND BACK, GUYS,
ALBY IS HERE. SO WHEN DOES SPECIAL RELATIVITY
COME OUT?>>1905.>>Stephen: WHAT IS WHAT YOU
CALL ANAS MIRABULOUS.>>RELATIVITY IS THE MOST FAMOUS
WHERE HE REDEFINED OUR UNDERSTANDING OF SPACE AND TIME.>>Stephen: IS THAT E.EQUALS
MC SQUARED.>>IT WAS AN AFTERTHOUGHT OF THE
SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY.>>Stephen: BY THE WAY, E. EQUALS MC SQUARED.>>HE PUBLISHED SPECIAL
RELATIVITY AND IN SEPTEMBER HE HAS A LITTLE EXTRA IDEA, WHICH
IS E. EQUALS MC SQUARED.>>Stephen: SO THIS IS 10
YEARS LATER. AND HAS HE GOT ANY HITS IN
BETWEEN THOSE TWO?>>HE PUBLISHED ENORMOUS NUMBERS
OF PAPERS BUT HIS REAL FOCUS, THE PASSION OF HIS LIFE’S WORK,
WAS TO FIGURE OUT GRAVITY.>>Stephen: AND HOW DID– HOW
DID IT COME TO HIM THAT– HOW THIS WORKS? ( LAUGHTER ).>>WELL, YOU KNOW–
>>Stephen: I DON’T EVEN KNOW HOW TO FORM THE QUESTION.>>HE WAS DEEPLY PUZZLED. HOW DOES THE SUN KEEP THE EARTH
IN ORBIT? WHAT IS GRAVITY. AND HE’S THINKING ABOUT THIS,
THINKING ABOUT THIS. AND ONE DAY IN 1907, HE’S IN THE
PATENT OFFICE IN SWITZERLAND WHERE HE WORKED, AND HE HAD WHAT
HE CALLED THE HAPPIEST THOUGHT OF HIS LIFE.>>Stephen: WOW.>>AND THE THOUGHT —
>>IS THAT SOMETHING THAT WE CAN SAY?>>WE CAN TALK ABOUT IT. I DON’T KNOW ABOUT YOUR HAPPIEST
THOUGHT, BUT HIS WE WITH TALK ABOUT. ( LAUGHTER )
( APPLAUSE ) SO HE IMAGINES A MAN FALLING
FROM THE ROOF OF A HOUSE. ( LAUGHTER ).>>Stephen: HAPPY! YAY!>>AND HE REALIZES THAT THAT MAN
WOULD NOT FEEL HIS OWN WEIGHT. HE WOULD FEEL WEIGHTLESS.>>Stephen: IN FREEFALL.>>FREEFALL. HE’S ON A SCALE. AND THE SCALE’S READING WOULD
FALL TO ZERO BECAUSE HE’S NO LONGER PUSHING ON THE SCALE. HE’S FALLING WITH IT.>>Stephen: I UNDERSTAND
THERE’S AN EXPERIMENT TO DEMONSTRATE THAT.>>YES, A SIMPLE DEMONSTRATION. ( APPLAUSE ).>>Stephen: YEAH! OKAY. DO I HAVE TO DO ANYTHING?>>NO, IT’S VERY SIMPLE. ALL WE HAVE HERE IS A BOTTLE OF
WATER THAT HAS HOLES IN IT, RIGHT? SO, OF COURSE, THE WATER IS
SPRAYING OUT OF THE HOLES BECAUSE GRAVITY IS PULLING ON
THE WATER, RIGHT?>>Stephen: RIGHT.>>BUT IF EINSTEIN IS RIGHT, IF
I DROP THIS BOTTLE, THE WATER WILL NO LONGER FEEL GRAVITY, SO
THE WATER SHOULD STOP SPRAYING OUT. LET’S SEE IT, THREE, TWO, ONE.>>Stephen: WHOA! ( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE )
WOW. OKAY. NOW, DID EINSTEIN– DID EINSTEIN
HAVE ANY THEATERIES ABOUT WHO’S GOING TO CLEAN THAT UP RIGHT
NOW? SO HE SAW, THAT HE THOUGHT OF
THAT, AND THEN GENERAL RELATIVITY.>>EIGHT YEARS IN THE MIND OF
ALBERT EINSTEIN.>>Stephen: SO HE THINKS ABOUT
IT FOR EIGHT YEARS. WHAT’S NEXT?>>THEN HE REALIZES THAT THERE’S
A LINK BETWEEN GRAVITY AND MOTION.>>Stephen: LET’S– WE HAVE
ANOTHER EXPERIMENT.>>HE COMES UP WITH THIS IDEA
FOR HOW GRAVITY WORKS. THIS IS MEANT TO BE THE FABRIC
OF SPACE.>>Stephen: OKAY. IT’S BLARK IT’S BLACK.>>IT’S BLACK, RIGHT, EXACTLY. HE SAYS IF THERE’S NO MATTER, NO
ENERGY IN SPACE AND IT’S FLAT WHICH WOULD MEAN IF YOU ROLL
SOMETHING– SAY A PLANET IS MOVING THROUGH SPACE, IT GOES ON
A STRAIGHT LINE. BUT NOW LET’S BRING IN THE SUN. THIS IS THE SUN RIGHT HERE. AND HE SAYS IN THE GENERAL
THEORY OF RELATIVITY, THAT THE SUN, MERELY BY VIRTUE OF BEING
IN SPACE, WARPS THE FABRIC OF SPACE, ACTUALLY AND TIME. AND THAT’S VITAL.>>Stephen: IT MAKES LIKE A
>>A WELL IN A SENSE. BECAUSE NOW IF WE TAKE THE
EARTH, RIGHT, AND SET IT IN MOTION, IT NOW GOES INTO ORBIT,
BECAUSE THE FABRIC OF SPACE IS NUDGING IT AROUND. AND THAT IS, ACCORDING TO
EINSTEIN, HOW GRAVITY WORKS. SO IF WE GET THESE GUYS MOVING,
ALL OF THESE PLANETS, OBJECTS– I THINK I JUST THREW SOMETHING
OFF THE EDGE OF THE UNIVERSE. ( LAUGHTER )
THIS ACCORDING TO EINSTEIN IS HOW THE FORCE OF GRAVITY
ACTUALLY WORKS. WE CAN PUT SOME, LET’S SAY
ASTROADSIDE, IN THERE, AND LET THEE GUYS GO IN MOTION. GO CRAZY. GO CRAZY.>>Stephen: DO I HAVE TO GO IN
THE SAME DIRECTION?>>IT’S UP TO YOU, MAN. GO NUTS. RIGHT OFF THE EDGE OF THE
UNIVERSE AGAIN!>>Stephen: I THINK I’VE TORN
THE FABRIC OF SPACE TIME.>>AND THEN WE HAVE SOME OF
THESE GUYS OVER HERE.>>Stephen: WOW. AND THOSE PLANETS ARE ON FIRE? ( LAUGHTER )
>>THERE THEY ARE.>>Stephen: I’VE GOT ONE MORE
QUESTION FOR YOU. EVERYBODY ALWAYS SAYS THIS IS–
THIS IS A BEAUTIFUL DEMONSTRATION. EVERYONE ALWAYS SAYS TO GUYS
LIKE YOU, “CAN YOU DUMB IT DOWN TO THE LEVEL OF, LIKE, A
FIVE-YEAR-OLD?” I WOULD LIKE YOU TO NOT DUMB IT
DOWN. I WOULD LIKE YOU TO SAY IT TO ME
AS IF I WERE MY AGE, 51, BUT HAD AN ADVANCED DEGREE IN PHYSICS
AND HIGH MATHEMATICS. GIVE IT TO ME IN LESS THAN 30
SECONDS, BUT LET ME JUST LEAN INTO MY IGNORANCE OF WHAT YOU’RE
SAYING TO ME.>>SO ALBERT EINSTEIN SAYS THAT
SPACE TIME IS A FOUR-DIMENSIONAL HOUSES DIFFERENTIAL MANIFOLD ON
WHICH A METRIC TENSOR IS IMPOSED THAT SOLVES THE EINSTEIN FIELD
EQUATIONS, AND THAT METRIC TENSOR GIVES RISE TO GEODESICS
AND OBJECTS NOT EXPERIENCE ANYTHING OTHER FORCE MOVE ALONG
THE GEODESICCS DESCRIBED BY THAT METRIC. ( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE )
>>Stephen: THAT’S– THAT’S– THAT’S ( BLEEP ) RIGHT THERE! BRIAN GREENE, EVERYBODY. THANK YOU SO MUCH. HAPPY BIRTHDAY, GENERAL
RELATIVITY. WE’LL BE RIGHT BACK.

Reader Comments

  1. I have a strong belief that these theories are ages old and they have just been oppressed. Of course despite the claims of history I refuse to believe that my own ancestors were stupid enough to believe the world is flat. As such it is a matter of being able to deduce the truth having made observations. Not taking anything away from Einstein but I am sure that Human beings are not as limited as we have been led to believe.

  2. Wtf of course the water still feels gravity that is why it is falling. You dont see it spray out because the bottle is also moving at the same rate. Da fuq?!?!?!

  3. whenever i see this demonstration, (as it is everywhere) I get a doubt always, if sun or any heavy object bend the fabric of the universe and rounder the way of smaller objects, then why the smaller objects don't end up being crashing in sub or the heavy object? how can they keep their own orbit same and for eternity?? why the path is fixed??

  4. When he evaluated it to a specific point, it felt like 30 pages of science formulas and einsteins life he explained in 15 seconds…

    He's been reviewing which I should also do bye.

  5. In the demo all the objects fall into the center after orbiting for some time, but how does earth and satellites maintain its orbital distance?

  6. Good of you to treat science as exciting.
    Maybe if you had one show a month or week, you could help educate or ignite interest in some people…

  7. Quick question: so is the space time fabric literally a two-dimensional thing or are we supposed to imagine it in every plane possible like a 3-dimensional representation?? I guess what I’m asking is, is space really flat like that??

  8. I mean the presentation was good, I adore Colbert,…but…come on… I can't be the only one who actually heard what was being said here.

  9. could it be that the relative weight of jar with that water is heavier than the spilling water on the holes therefore the the spilling water stops and falls with the jar? also will the speed of falling jar affect the holes in the sense that the air around the falling jar is blocking the holes?

  10. The problem is when our planet orbit around sun u give force to that planet, now u try to put that all planet on that space table without pushing it, could they still orbit???

  11. This has nothing to do with water "not feeling" gravity. It is the container accelerating at the same rate as the water it contains.

  12. But I didn't understand,The ball which makes the curved space is making this it's because of Earth's Gravity,isnt it?

  13. Of course the liquid is going to flow out. It's a liquids natural tendency to seek its level. Gravity has nothing to do with his demonstration.

  14. As a non-scientist i get dumbfounded the more each I read or watch demonstrations on Einstein's theory of relativity. Nobody says much how the orbiting objects don't fall to the sun as it does in their demonstrations.

  15. Is that the best he could do to prove gravity / relativity as bad as Tyson dropping a mic zero proof presented as usual, the universe the playground of the imagination.

  16. I always see that last example being used to explain gravity, but example only works here on earth because we have gravity, but it doesn't explain how gravity works. Let's say that explains how planets orbit the sun, but does that mean there's gravity under the fabric of space?

  17. Einstein's Wrong!

    The table is used to demonstrate gravity, which is the heavier masses pushing down – curving the sheet- thus pulling lighter masses towards them.
    So if that's gravity..
    What is the force pulling the sun down towards the table?!

  18. Problem is, if you actually take the time to investigate, GR fails fundamentally and conceptually. http://www.sciencewoke.org

  19. Can someone explain: while revolving why doesn't the Earth touch the sun in real life, like in the demonstration all the balls eventually touched the sun? Kindly note I'm from non-science background.

  20. Lol everyone in the comments is suddenly a physicist. At least there exists some amount of people that are willing to claim some amount of intelligence.

  21. MORE SCIENCE <3 edit: just got to the end and holy shit it's like the nerd version of making it rain on a bathtub full of bitches. bravo sirs!

  22. 619 people are or will be flat earthers.. just for the mere fact that they didnt understand what this guys was saying.. better make up your own reality than rather learn how things really work.. and convince everybody else that you are right so as not to make you look stupid.. – flat earther mentality..

  23. In the bottle experiment, isn't the air pressure exerted on the walls of the bottle due to acceleration keeping the water from coming out of the holes? Can somebody explain? Pardon my ignorance.

  24. While i choose to believe this theory, as does most of the World, I am still of the mind that we are looking at the universe from a very limited perspective, and we as any living thing can only understand so much, so i also believe that all the Things we take as being "fact" most likely are totally wrong, but from our limited time and Means in this universe we will never know the facts of it, we will only know what we are able to perceive, it's exactly how the movie Lucy says, there are no numbers we have just quantified the universe to bring it Down to a human scale so that we can forget it's unfathomable scale. That's what i believe.

  25. I noticed several mistakes in his so called expert explanation of relativity. To stsrt with, several, rather most of the words could not be understood (and mind you, am quite an expert myself as I have watched several videos on relativity). His pronunciation of the swahili words was off too. Quite disappointed.

  26. Would be happier if he also gave a reason as to why the planets don't just crash into the sun eventually like the balls did

  27. 2 out my 3 brothers are flat earth era and don’t believe in gravity. I’ve tried explaining this so much to them. I loved his explanation but it’s sad we still to explain this and it not already be common sense.

  28. the whole bottle with holes.. that is genius! absolute genius. so the water weighing more than air, contained in a container giving it more weight (Mass). replace 100% of our air with Helium, how the chuck do you explain gravity then, everyone flying around and shyt!. dropping the jugg would displace the air in the jugg while the water moved upward enough to not let it drain from holes, BECAUSE OF IT'S WEIGHT! not because of a magical force pushing back or pulling! the theory of relativity is non sense, it still makes no sense because it is non sense. it relates a theory to what we think we know about space and relativity in space. how the fuck can we know what is relative in space if we've barely been there! why is "gravity" so important? for the same reason the truth is important aparently.. fishbowl science!

  29. Why gravity works on moving of light,in case of black hole…

    You are saying that motion of that falling bottle is independent of gravity…

  30. And then you may ask, "What gives us the motion to move down the curve then? Why are we always moving?"
    Because we are constantly propelled through time. Gravity is the physical manifestation of time in space.

  31. Mass resists acceleration due to force. Yet objects of different masses will accelerate due to gravity at the same rate. So the classical model says that the force of gravity scales up with the mass, effectively canceling it out (assuming objects of negligible mass compared to the thing they're falling toward). Which is the kind of "convenient" that makes you feel uneasy. Why should a force automatically scale up to negate the very thing that resists that force? So Einstein was like, "Gravity is not a force. It's the warping of space-time that tilts time itself into the spacial dimension. It re-defines what a straight line is. The object doesn't bend toward the planet. The object's future is bent toward it." Paraphrasing.

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